Key benefits of feeding once a day
- Labour saving
- Earlier consumption of concentrates
- Accelerated rumen development
- Highly digestible for the young calf
- Boosted immunity
Using a once a day feed programme has the benefit of saving hugely on labour without any additional cost of investment. A farmer rearing 40 calves once a day can save 50 hours of work. As it takes less time to feed the calves, it allows for increased attention to detail when it comes to other calf rearing areas such as housing, bedding and illness.
Compared to offering milk 2+ times daily, feeding once a day allows earlier consumption of concentrates and accelerated rumen development (Table 1) without any compromise in health or growth (Table 2). This allows for earlier weaning (approximately one week earlier) which saves the amount of liquid feed each calves consumes, the most expensive feed in their lifetime. As the calves’ rumen is more developed at weaning, their post-weaning performance is better, continuing with steady growth rates.
|Papillae Absorption area||98.1||62.4||0.002||57%|
Table 1. Rumen development in calves fed once a day (OAD) and twice a day (TAD)
|Start||57 kg||57 kg|
|3 Weeks||66 kg||63 kg|
|6 Weeks||85 kg||82 kg|
|12 Weeks||132 kg||124 kg|
Table 2. Liveweight in preweaned calves fed once a day (OAD) and twice a day (TAD) The key to once a day benefiting calves is the ingredients used in the milk replacer blend (Figure 1). Milk proteins which are slowly digested are fundamental – this would be skim milk protein. Skim and buttermilk form a clot in the abomasum of the calf which is then broken down throughout the day. Whey protein is rapidly digested, entering the small intestine from the abomasum an hour after consumption and thus is not suitable for once a day feeding. Calves fed shine once a day are more content as they are being ‘drip fed’ protein all day long. Buttermilk is digested in a similar way to skim milk while its lactic acid flavour reduces stomach upsets and feed refusals. The lecithin (skin of the milk fat globule) acts as an emulsifier thus helping to breakdown other fats consumed by the calf. Additionally, research in France by Fuller et al. (2013) has reported that inclusion of buttermilk reduces rotavirus infectivity (Figure 2).
Figure 1. Digestion of milk in the calf. *Shine = skim based milk replacer
Figure 2. Effect of buttermilk fat on rotavirus infectivity. Fuller et al., 2013
The blend of fat in the milk replacer can also play a very important role by improved digestibility and immunity. Certain fats are known as ‘hard fats’ and are more difficult to digest. As they take longer to process the calf feels full for longer and is not enticed to consume concentrates. Having a good balance of short, medium and long chained fatty acids is important. Moreover, the blend of Omega 6:3 deserves important consideration. In cows milk the inclusion is 100:1 while in shine once a day it is 2.8:1 which has been suggested by Hill et al. (2011) to improve the calf’s ability to combat pneumonia by reducing rectal temperatures and inflammation (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Effect of fat blend on reaction to Pasteurella vaccination. Hill et al., 2013
23% milk protein
Transition milk is the milk cows produce after colostrum and before they produce what we consider milk. It is higher in most nutrients and antibodies and is beneficial to feed to calves. However, the effect of high TBC’s in transition milk and the risk of spreading disease offset these benefits. Using Transformula is the perfect solution and gives baby calves what baby calves need.
A skim and whey milk replacer using milk protein with added immune-stimulants and probiotics for feeding calves in the first days of life.
- Over 200g of low heat skim milk, buttermilk and concentrated whey protein in every 300g of feed.
- Allows farmers to reduce medicine usage with young calves. Transformula contains 10 times the level of anti- scour agents found in standard calf milk.
- Saves ½- ¾ hour work every day.
- Contains Kryptonite – a plant extract to ensure the small intestine is a hostile environment for pathogens.
- Contains buttermilk which reduces stomach upsets and feed refusals as it acts as an emulsifier enhancing fat breakdown and it contains a lactic acid flavour. Additionally, it can reduce rotavirus infectivity.
- It contains a blend of oils which increases digestibility of fat for the calf; it is important to have a good mix of short, medium and long chained fatty acids. Additionally, it contains a blend of Omega 6:3 oils that increase the calf’s ability to combat pneumonia.
Add 1 L jug of powder to 3 ½ L jugs of water (this will make enough milk replacer to feed 2 calves per feed) or 140g of powder made up to 1L of mixed Transformula.
|Day 1||Colostrum up to 10% of calf’s body weight or 4L in first 2 hours of life|
|Day 2+||280g in 1 ¾ L of warm water twice a day|
- Feeding recommendations based on 42kg Holstein Friesian calf. Adjust accordingly for small calves, twins and other breeds.
- If disease challenges are high, feed for up to 21 days and then change to milk replacer